The portal website, which CPD connects to for payments and course booking will be moving between 8th of March and 9th of March.


During this time it will not be possible to book courses through portal or link your portal and CPD accounts.


Apologies for any inconvenience this may cause. Please contact pbsgladministrator@nes.scot.nhs.uk should you require assistance in this matter.

Publications

Publications

PBSGL Research

The PBSGL papers

From the first days of implementation of Practice Based Small Group Learning (PBSGL) in Scotland we have been committed to evaluating and researching its acceptability and effectiveness as a learning method in our context. Listed below are the titles, references and abstracts of papers that have resulted from this work, all of which have been published in peer-reviewed journals. The articles include:

  • A description and analysis of PBSGL as a learning method
  • Both a quantitative and a qualitative evaluation of the pilot phase of PBSGL in Scotland when there were only five groups
  • A description of the experiences of a PBSGL group using video conferencing to overcome the challenge of isolation
  • A theoretical article focussing on commitment to change
  • Three papers that resulted from the pilotting of PBSGL in groups of Practice Nurses and groups that included Practice Nurses and GPs

We remain committed to a research focus within the PBSGL programme and have four current streams:

  1. Engagement in, and change resulting from PBSG Learning
  2. PBSGL in GP Specialty Training
  3. Research on the role of the facilitator
  4. Research into the apparent result of engagement in PBSGL and the development of communities of practice

Abstracts & links of published research papers can be found below:


The recruitment of new members to existing PBSGL small groups: a qualitative study.

This study aimed to determine how groups recruit new members and discern what are the important attributes of the new members.

Park J & Cunningham DE. 2018

Click here for more information


Practice-Based Small Group Learning (PBSGL) in Scotland – a survey of registered pharmacy staff and general practice nurses

Education for Primary Care. 29(2): 79 – 85.

This study aimed to evaluate GPNs and pharmacy staff use of PBSGL to gain the views of a larger membership than the earlier pilot studies. The aims of the study were: to describe, the use of PBSGL by pharmacy staff and GPNs, demographic details of members, to identify factors that motivated members to join and to continue with the programme.

Cunningham DE & Zlotos L. 2018

Click here for more information 


Development of an interface-focused educational complex intervention

Education for Primary Care. 28(5): 265-273

Sampson R, MacVicar R & Wilson P. 2017

The study aimed to describe the development of an educational intervention designed to improve working at the primary-secondary care interface in NHS Scotland (United Kingdom) within the context of the Medical Research Council framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions. 

Please click here for more information.


Improving the primary-secondary care interface in Scotland: a qualitative exploration of impact on clinicians of an educational complex intervention

BMJ Open. 7: 1-8

Sampson R, MacVicar R & Wilson P 2017

This paper sought to determine the impact on clinicians and any consequent influence on patient care of taking part in the bespoke interface-focused educational intervention. 

Please click here for more information.


Inter-professional small group learning: a case study of two pharmacist-facilitated groups in Scotland

Pharmacy Education. 16(1): 210-217

Wakeling J, Ferguson J, Cunningham DE, Zlotos L & Power A. 2016

This study aimed to explore how the groups functioned and to see whether participants found this a useful method of fulfilling their professional development needs.

Please click here for more information.


Ten years of practice-based small group learning (PBSGL) in Scotland – a survey of general practitioners

Education for Primary Care. 27(4): 306-313.

Cunningham DE & Zlotos L. 2016

Practice-based small group learning (PBSGL) has grown in Scotland since its pilot in 2004. There are now over 2,100 clinicians in 370 groups across the UK. The programme is used by all 14 territorial health boards in NHS Scotland. It seemed timely to undertake an evaluation of the programme.

Please click here for more information.


GP and pharmacist inter-professional learning – a grounded theory study

Education for Primary Care. 27 (3): 188-195

Cunningham DE, Ferguson J, Wakeling J, Zlotos L & Power A. 2016

To gain GPs’ and pharmacists’ perceptions and experiences of learning together in an inter-professional PBSGL pilot.

Please click here for more information.


Scottish pharmacists' perceptions and experiences of a practice-based small group learning pilot: a qualitative study

Education for Primary Care. 25 (3): 155-162

Cunningham DE, Zlotos L & Power A. 2014

This study aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of pharmacists following a pilot of PBSGL.

Please click here for more information.


Practice-based Small Group Learning in Scotland

In Bowie P & De Wet C, editors. Building a Safety and Improvement Culture in Primary Care: A Practical Guide. London: Radcliffe Publishing

MacVicar R. 2014


Supporting educational supervisor development at the interface: evaluation of a pilot of PBSGL for faculty development

Education for Primary Care 24, 3, 178-184

MacVicar R, Guthrie V, O'Rourke J, Sneddon A. (January 2013)

Practice based small group learning is an established approach for Continuing Professional Development for GPs in Scotland. This paper describes an extension of the PBSGL approach to support the learning and development of educational supervisors from both hospital and general practice, working together in peer-facilitated small groups to address topic-specific, evidence-based educational modules. Four groups met on three occasions each and qualitative data were gathered from interviews with the facilitators and the participants. This was supplemented with observational data of the group process and function. Both GPs and consultants enjoyed the format and were very positive about the experience of working together in this way. Both commitment to change educational practice and reported actual changes in practice were evident.


Practice-based small group learning in GP Speciality Training

Education in Primary Care 23, 1, 27-33 (7)

Hesselgreaves, H and MacVicar, R. February (2012)

This research aimed to explore GP Specialty Trainees' (GPSTs') perspectives of the impact of PBSGL on curriculum needs, preparation for independent practice, and facilitator learning.

Please click here for more information


Practice-based small group learning: what are the motivations to become and continue as a facilitator? A qualitative study.

Quality In Primary Care 19 1 5-12
Cunningham D, McCalister P and MacVicar R. (2011)

Growth of participant numbers has required the recruitment and retention of trained peer facilitators who help PBSGL groups to learn. It was not known what the perceptions and experiences of PBSGL facilitators were; in particular what had motivated them to become and continue as a facilitator. Two focus groups of PBSGL facilitators were held; their discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed with permission. Data generated was coded, and themes constructed from these codes.

Please click here for more information


PBSGL - an effective learning method, and it helps reduce professional isolation

Primary Care Educator News, Volume 2 No 4 Aug 2010. Dr P McCalister

A summary of PBSGL methods and history.


PBSGL in GPST in Scotland

Hannah Hesselgreaves & Ronald MacVicar. Glasgow, AMEE 2010

This research aimed to explore GP Specialty Trainees' (GPSTs) perspectives of the impact of PBSGL on curriculum needs, preparation for independent practice, and facilitator learning. One-to-one interviews were conducted with sixteen GPSTs from a range of Scottish deaneries and stages in training and analysed using qualitative techniques.

Please click here for more information


The Thistle and the Maple Leaf: International Collaboration to enhance CPD Ronald MacVicar & Heather Armson, Malaga, AMEE 2009

A collaborative partnership between the Foundation for Medical Practice Education in Canada and NES has involved an adaptation of PBSGL to meet the needs of Scottish General Practitioners (GPs). Collaboration has included facilitator training, "tartanisation" of learning materials and plans for collaborative research. Implementation strategies, expected and unforeseen challenges and adaptations required to facilitate the 'fit' of an existing programme to a different medical environment will be presented

Please click here for more information


Practice Based Small Group Learning

BMJ Careers. 20 February 2010, GP 62

McCalister P

Peter McCalister talks you through an effective learning method that helps reduce professional isolation.


Practice Based Small Group Learning: how health professionals view their intention to change and the process of implementing change in practice

Medical Teacher DOI:10.3109/01421590902842425

Kanisin-Overton G., McCalister P., Kelly D., MacVicar R.

Commitment-to-change (CTC) strategies used as part of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) programmes have been found to influence changes in the clinical practice of health professionals. However, there is an unquestioned usage of the term 'commitment'...

Please click here for more information


The Practice-based Small Group Learning programme: experiences of learners in multi-professional groups

Journal of Interprofessional Care. 2009 May;23(3):262-72.

Kanisin-Overton G, McCalister P, Kelly D, MacVicar R.

This study describes the experiences of General Practitioners (GPs) and Practice Nurses (PNs) as they came together and engaged in the Practice-based Small Group Learning (PBSGL) programme.

Please click here for more information


The practice-based small group learning approach: Making evidence-based practice come alive for learners

Nurse Education Today. 29 (2009) 671-675

Overton GK, Kelly D, McCalister P, Jones J, Macvicar R.

This paper reports the study of a pilot learning programme for the Continuing Professional Development of Practice Nurses (PNs) in Scotland.

Please click here for more information


Requesting a commitment to change: conditions that produce behavioral or attitudinal commitment

Journal for Continuing Education in the Health Professions 2008 Spring;28(2):60-6.

Overton GK, Macvicar R.

There is a lack of clarity in the conceptualization of commitment underlying the commitment to change (CTC) procedure used by organizers of continuing education in the health professions. This article highlights the two distinct conceptualizations of commitment that have emerged in the literature outside health care education and practice.

Please click here for more information


Small group Learning and videoconferencing: are they compatible?

Education for Primary Care. 18(2) (pp192-195), 2007

O'Rourke J.

This paper published in the "Teaching exchange" part of Education for Primary Care describes the experiences of using videoconference as a medium for participants to "meet" in the pilot phase of PBSGL in the Highlands of Scotland.


Applying evidence in practice through small group learning: A qualitative exploration of success

Quality in Primary Care, Volume 15, Number 2, April 2007 , pp. 93-98(6)

Kelly, Diane R.; Cunningham, David E.; McCalister, Peter; Cassidy, Joe; MacVicar, Ronald

The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of PBSG participants to gain an understanding of how PBSG learning achieves its success.

Please click here for more information


Applying evidence in practice through small group learning: A Scottish pilot of a Canadian programme

Education for Primary Care. 17(5)(pp 465-472), 2006. Date of Publication: Sep 2006.

MacVicar R., Cunningham D., Cassidy J., McCalister P., O'Rourke J.G., Kelly D.R.

There is a lack of consensus about how to translate research findings into practice. The gap between evidence-based practice and clinical practice is perhaps most apparent in general medical practice. This study examines the effectiveness of practice-based small group (PBSG) learning in addressing this gap and in participants' understanding of the effectiveness of small group functioning.

Please click here for more information


Canada's Practice Based Small Group Learning Project: an innovative approach to continuing professional development

Education for Primary Care. 14(4)(pp 431-439), 2003. Date of Publication: Nov 2003.

MacVicar R.

This paper describes and analyses the Practice Based Small Group Learning Programme (PBSG).

Please click here for more information